Gruppo di persone che fanno riscaldamento dinamico

Traditionally, warming up consists of physical activity aimed at preparing the body for performance, training, or exercise.

This activity is further divided into General Warm-up and Specific Warm-up.

General Warm-up generally consists of medium-intensity aerobic activity (up to 60% of VO2 max) with the goal of increasing joint lubrication; improving blood flow to muscles and tendons with a reduction in viscosity; enhancing oxygen supply and the transmission of nerve signals.

Specific Warm-up is tailored to the movement or exercise that will be performed.

If we’re talking about an exercise, it will consist of a progression in % load on the exercise itself;

if we’re talking about a movement, it will be followed by dynamic stretching exercises that have a similar transfer to the movement itself.

Personally, I believe that General Warm-up should always include mobilization exercises (not static stretching) of the main kinetic chains and Core activation exercises, as well as medium-low intensity cardio activity. This is because mobilization, even if unspecific, still activates a large number of neural receptors that will improve neuromuscular efficiency and therefore performance.

In light of the knowledge that is gradually acquired, I believe that even for a seemingly simple factor like Warm-up, it is necessary to take a step forward.

Defining Warm-up as the Neuro-Motor Activation Necessary to Create an Optimal Organic Environment for Performance.

Let’s explore the reason behind this definition and what it entails.

What do you do when you wake up in the morning? (and not immediately reaching for your mobile phone))

  1. 1 – you open your eyes,
  2. 2 – you sit up, stretch (sometimes rub your eyes further) and mime washing your face,
  3. 3 – you stand up and take a few steps.

These are absolutely instinctive actions that indicate something, namely that:

YOUR BODY KNOWS HOW TO DO IT (quote from Enrico Bruscia).

Your reflexive, instinctive movements are precisely following the activation sequence of the main neural systems:

  • visual,
  • vestibular
  • proprioceptive

This sequence should become part of your Warm-up routine.

“The most important and overlooked aspect of warming up is the stimulation of the nervous system” – Vern Gambetta.

What is often forgotten, in a muscle-centric view, is that everything depends on the Central Unit, i.e., the Central Nervous System. That’s where we need to start.


The Visual System, your dominant system (70 – 90% of sensory inputs).

Warm up your eyes to switch on the “central unit”, the Brain, because WHERE THE EYE GOES, THE ATTENTION FOLLOWS.

Warming up the Visual System means being more prepared, improving Reactivity.

To verify its effectiveness, perform the following test exercise battery:

Bending Test


Neck Rotations

Intra- and Extra-rotation of the arms

Now perform the following Visual Warm-up exercises:

A – Pencil Push up

  • Extend your arm straight in front of you holding a pen in your hand.
  • Focus closely on the tip of the pen while bringing it towards your face until it touches the tip of your nose.
  • Continuing to focus on the pen tip, extend your arm back out.

Perform the exercise for 7 repetitions.


B – Tennis Ball Toss

  • Perform 10 throws of a tennis ball against a wall with your right hand, trying to catch it with only the right hand (without using your body to help).
  • Perform 10 throws with the opposite arm.

After each exercise, perform the entire battery of tests again, check for improvements, and note the extent of these improvements.

Something improved, right?


The vestibular system is your balance and equilibrium system, also known as the Gravity Sensor.

It is intimately connected with the Visual System – the superior colliculi process/gather visual information; the inferior colliculi gather information from the vestibular system.

Particularly important in terms of Performance is the concept of Oculo-motor Coordination, a synergistic expression of the functions of these two systems.

What are some Vestibular Warm-up exercises?

I propose two.

Always remember the battery of tests from the previous paragraph, which you should also repeat here.

Romberg Test

  • Stand with feet together, arms relaxed at your sides, fixate on a point in front of you for 30 seconds.
  • Feet together, arms relaxed at your sides, close your eyes for 30 seconds.

Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

  • Hold your arm out in front of you with your thumb up.
  • Focus on your thumb while rotating your head horizontally, vertically, and diagonally.
  • Perform the movement, changing the direction: from right to left; from top to bottom; diagonally from bottom to top, and so on for 30 seconds.

After each exercise, perform the battery of tests again and check the results and effects.


The proprioceptive system is responsible for the body’s position in space and its kinesthetic perception.

Clearly, we are talking about an extremely complex system, about which, since we are discussing “warming up” and thus still a preparatory phase for the exercise, we must choose which information to prioritize.

Obviously, this depends on the subsequent training.

Certainly, Myofascial and Sensory information (focus on mechanoreceptors and baroreceptors) are crucial.

The proposal for the former is work on the foot and walking.

The most important Myofascial Lines run under the foot: Lateral Line, Deep Front Line, Superficial Front Line, Superficial Back Line.

Walking on Heels

Walking in Eversion


Fitness, sport, training and lifestyle concept. Group of people friends exercising outdoor

General Warm-up:

Exercises for the visual system

Exercises for the vestibular system

Exercises for the Myofascial System

Exercises for the Proprioceptive System

Cardio phase

General Mobilization

Specific Warm-up:

Exercises for the Visual System (depending on the training)

Exercises for the Vestibular System (depending on the training)

Exercises for the Proprioceptive System

Specific Mobilization

Progressive increase of the load percentage on the exercise

Happy Training

Guido Bruscia



Table of Contents

Discover What We Can Do for You

👉🏻Since 2009, we’ve been by your side, helping you create the perfect training spaces for Cross Training Boxes, Personal Trainer Studios, and professional Home Gyms.

Request your customized quote today to discover our tailor-made 3D design services, transportation, and assembly. And don’t worry, we’re here to support you with any needs even after your purchase. ⬇️

On Key

Related Posts


RECEIVE 75 points

Receive 75 Xenios USA Club points that you can use on your very first purchase.